Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices.
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Pediatr Rep. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire: Establishing cutoff points. World Health Organization. Geneva: WHO; Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ. Asia Pac J Public Health. Junk food seen at pediatric clinic visits: is it a problem?
Picky eating during childhood: a longitudinal study to age 11 years. Eat Behav. Longitudinal association between preschool fussy eating and body composition at 6 years of age: The Generation R Study.
Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight-factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. PLoS One. Factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits in two cohorts of Brazilian children. BMC Public Health. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis.
Early flavor learning and its impact on later feeding behavior. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged years from the Brazilian semi-arid region. J Pediatr Rio J. Parental pressure, dietary patterns, and weight status among girls who are "picky eaters".
This makes this book an invaluable window into the intangible Portuguese mental substrate from which all culture arises, both by its written and unwritten content and which has been unexplainably left unstudied and unattended by the academic community at large. Variations and editions — The Iberian duality Before dwelling into this one single book, it should be understood that it actually inserts itself in a long and rich tradition of Iberian magical literature.
Secundo: Nemo Thezaura haurire deziderans v… fican? Figure 1. Besides this, one can find numerous folk legends that transport Cyprian from his distant Antioch modern day Turkey , directly into the Iberian world Coelho, a. Approaching the modern times, we find that the many current but not all versions of St Cyprian books can mostly be grouped into two main branches, which can currently be divided by the linguistic and national borders of Portugal and Spain.
DIFICULDADES ALIMENTARES EM PRÉ-ESCOLARES, PRÁTICAS ALIMENTARES PREGRESSAS E ESTADO NUTRICIONAL
Between the Portuguese and the Spanish versions, this is the one that falls more in line with the typical European grimoire tradition. Figure 2. As such, this book somehow presents itself at the crossroads between the oral and the written word, as oral knowledge congealed in book form. Even though northern Italy is home to several traditional practices related to St Cyprian, such as orisons, remedies and sorceries, the occurrence of this version of the book in this area seems to have been a purely commercial move by publishers in order to capitalize on pre-existing native folk practices, and as such these do not represent an original product of the local culture.
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The Scandinavian case on the other hand is a completely different and legitimate branch of the grimoire tradition. Such a circumstance meant that these never came to crystallize into a standard version by action of the printing press. As far as Denmark goes, there appear to be two distinct reports of who Cyprian was.
One says that he was an exceedingly evil Dane who was banished from Hell by the Devil himself Davies, Upset by this event, he dedicated himself to writing nine books on black magic, whose content is the base for the Scandinavian Black Books. The other account, also present in Norway Stokker, , describes him as a gentle and orderly person, who, while passing by the Black School of Norway, made a pact with the Devil and become a Sorcerer.
His book is said to have been written during his later years as he repented such evil actions, having the purpose to show how evil is performed so as one may counteract it. This legend goes on to say that this book is in fact divided into three parts, the Cyprianus, Dr. Faustus and Jacob Ramel. Going south towards Germany, we once again encounter similar traditions to the ones presented in Denmark, the following account is given by Thorpe : In ancient times there lived in one of the Danish isles a man named Cyprianus, who was worse than the Devil; consequently, after he was dead and gone to hell, he was again cast forth by the Devil and replaced on his isle.
There he wrote nine books, in the old Danish tongue, on Witchcraft and magical spells. Whosoever has read all these nine books through becomes the property of the Devil. From the original work three or nine copies are said to have been made by a monk, and mutilated copies of these have been dispersed all over the world. A count, who resided in the castle of Ploen, is said to have possessed a perfect copy, which he caused to be fastened with chains and buried under the castle; because in reading through eight books he was so troubled and terrified that he resolved on concealing it from the sight of the world.
One of these books still exists in Flensborg. Some spells from the nine books are still known among aged people. Whoever wishes to be initiated therein must first renounce his Christianity. One other remarkably different Scandinavian account describes Cyprianus as a beautiful Mexican nun from Her story states that after refusing the advances of a depraved clergy member she was locked in a dungeon where she wrote her book of magic with shreds from her clothing and her own blood Stokker, The structure of this book, although having suffered very minor alteration regarding the numeration of its various sections throughout the years, is in its essence the same as the most modern Portuguese editions.
This section, although present in every book, seems to place itself outside of its standard three parts. This is itself divided into nine chapters, being that the first seven present in fact a quite well structured system of healing, banishing and exorcism through prayers and orisons, having many interesting nuances and variations depending on the nature of the evil being treated, be it a devilish sorcery, an evil spirit or a good spirit. One other remarkable particularity about this section is an extremely lengthy and elaborate banishment for the disenchantment of one hundred and forty eight buried treasures, as this is a book that has always been intrinsically linked with magical treasure hunting.
This section bares strong and complex folkloric connections, which are fully exposed bellow. Bartholomeu e de S. In more recent edition Anon, this list has been divided further into more than thirty eight entries, as its numeration is on occasions illogical, with a few distinct entries listed under the same number.
The second section of this part is then directly related to this narrative, as it lists one hundred and seventy four buried treasures, some of which feature in the narrative presented in the first section. Such a text stands out in the book as it is clearly not from a folk or traditional source, quoting authors such as Johannes Hymonides, Antonio Possevino, Gerolamo Cardano or Alessandro Alessandri.
This may be solidly arrived at by the analysis of the works of J. This, in its oral and folk root, is an extremely wide spread and flexible orison, with examples literally from all around the world Coelho, b and it is based on the numerical enumerations of religious concepts and objects, such as the two tables of Moses, the three persons of the Trinity, the four evangelists and so on Vasconcelos, In Portugal in particular, references to this orison can be found at least as far as the 16th century, when it was outlawed and consequently starts to feature in Inquisition processes Braga, These two points, while sharing most of their attributes and general instructions, differ in the aspect that one is prepared by passing a needle thought the skin of a dead man point XXXVI while the other through the eyes of a bat point XLVI.
Although remaining silent about the process by which one may activate the magical power of such needles, Braga refers quite directly to the practice of the dead man needle, while Vasconcelos mentions a similar tradition which consists on passing a needle through the eyes of a snake, indicating that these are most likely to be flexible and wide spread customs. Also interesting in this section is point XXXVII, the instructions on how to acquire a miraculous herb that is said to restore life to the dead. Upon realizing that their eggs are dead the swallows are said to go fetch an herb which restores their life, being that one merely needs to take this herb in order to operate similar miracles.
Besides this, Braga also mentions similar instructions, hailing from Spain, for the acquisition of a stone used for the curing of every affliction of the eyes. Finally, in this section it should also be mentioned a particular procedure for the dispelling of the evil influence casted by a hunchback, point L.
Vasconcelos mentions this as a general superstition, brought into being by the 17th century physician Fonseca Henriques, which determined this particular physical deficiency, together with limping, blindness, possessing a cross-eye or only one hand, to be one that is able to cast fascinations and bad luck on all those who see them. Their organization and overall logic is challenging, with even the occurrence of repeated sorceries or various recipes for exactly the same purpose.
This transmits the same clear notion of fluidity and plasticity as these various procedures also possess in their original folk roots, and which are merely collected and congealed here under the name of the Sorcerer Saint Hero of Iberia. These may reveal to be completely invisible and unperceivable to the outside observer, but they greatly enhance its magical glamour and add layers of interpretation to its text.
As an offshoot of folk magic it has become truly a book of the people Ferreira, and although its readers and environment changes, its function remains the same: a repository and collection of magical secrets under the great and dark cloak of St Cyprian, the supreme master of all magic. Coming into the cult of Quimbanda, and its legions of spirits referred to as Exu and Pomba Gira, for example, both St Cyprian and his book have taken up a relevant and prestigious role in this genuinely Brazilian system Frisvold, According to its own narrative, it is said that it was from the spirit Exu Meia-Noite that St Cyprian acquired his occult knowledge Alva, n.
Of absolute importance at this point is the understanding of the common confusion between St Cyprian of Antioch and St Cyprian of Carthage, occasionally referred to as the Pope of Africa. This, over time, has then led to the association of St Cyprian with the African line of Umbanda and the spirits known as Pretos Velhos, later turned into the line of the Souls, the specific spiritual line worked in Quimbanda. References Almeida, A.
Alva, A. O Livro dos Exus Kiumbas e Eguns. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Eco. Lisboa: Moderna Editorial Lavores. Anon The Grand Grimoire. Calgary: Theophania Publishing. Lisboa: Veja. O Livro do Feiticeiro. Barreiro, B.