London and N. Y, ; 2 nd ed. Artaria and H. Botstiber, J. Brenet, H. Paris, ; 2 nd ed. Schnerich, J. Fischer ; K. Geiringer, J. Potsdam, ; E. Schmid, J. Y, ; 3 rd ed. Hughes, H. London, ; 6 th ed. Sondheimer, H. Bartha and L. Somfai, H. Grout , Ithaca, N. Y, ; H. Seeger, J.
Leipzig, ; A. Biographies Washington, D. Somfai, J. Robbins Landon, H. London, ; B. Redfern, H. Robbins Landon, H: Chronicle and Works 5 vols. Ill, H. Butterworth, H. Sydney, ; H. Robbins Landon and D. Vignai, J. Paris, ; W Marggraf, J. Sisman, ed. Wirth, J. Brand, Die Messen von J. Therstappen, J. String Quartets London, ; H.
Symphonies London, ; I. Saslav, Tempos in the String Quartets of]. H: A Study of Structure and Style diss. Cushman, J. Steinbeck, Das Menuett in der Instrumentalmusik J. Webster, The Bass Part in H. Barrett-Ayres, J. Finscher, Studien zur Geschichte des Streichquartetts, Vol. Kassel, ; J. Drury, H. Wackernagel, J. Jahrhunderts Tutzing, ; I. Lowens, H. Wolff, ed. Huss, J. Fisher, H. Peter Brown , Performing H. Keller, The Great H. Quartets: Their Interpretation London, ; M. Bandur, Form und Gehalt in den Streichquartetten J. Fruehwald, Authenticity Problems in J. Larsen, Essays on Handel, H.
Taggart, F. Y, ; D. Schroder, H. Wheelock, H. Y, ; E. Sisman, H. In Wolfgang and Maria Anna — the latter was now a pianoforte virtuoso — played before the Elector of Bavaria in Munich, and the enthusiasm provoked by their appearance was so great, that Leopold obtained leave of absence in September of the same year and went with his family to Vienna. At Passau the children played before the Bishop, who marvelled greatly and gave the father a ducat.
At Linz they gave their first concert. They then descended the Danube to Vienna, stopping at the monastery of Ips, where Wolfgang played so effec- tively upon the organ that the Franciscan fathers left the dinner table that they might hear him ; which miracle is doubtless recorded in the annals of the abbey. The Austrian imperial family was passionately fond of music. Francis the First was a distin- guished connoisseur, and Maria Theresa was a pupil of Wagenseil, as well as an accomplished singer.
The Mozart children w r ere received with open arms. The courtiers were astonished at the display of genius. The Emperor spent hours in testing and wondering at the powers of Wolfgang. The young Marie Antoinette romped with the boy who promised to marry her when he was old enough.
The noble families of the town vied with each other in their attentions. The children were given money, court dresses, and tokens of genuine affec- tion, and the first portrait of Wolfgang was painted then in Vienna, in which he has powdered hair, and he carries a sword. The boy was seized with scarlet fever in October, and in the beginning of Leopold went back to Salzburg.
Haydn, (Franz) Joseph
But the 9th of June of the same year, with his wife and children, he set out for Paris, having letters of credit from his good friend Haguenauer. They had adventures, and they gave concerts on the way. They arrived at Ludwigsburg, the Versailles of Stuttgart, where Jomelli, with his carriages and horses, houses and yearly salary of four thousand florins, brought to Leopold's mind his own modest condition, and pro- voked him to bitter remarks.
Frankfort, Bonn and Brussels were seen, and finally the family arrived in Paris the 18th of November. The story of this visit, as well as the visit of , has been most en- tertainingly told byjullien in the brochure "Mozart a Paris," to which the reader is referred for interest- ing details. The letters of Leopold contain much curious information about the musical condition of the city. Original in the Mozarteum, in Salzburg. Helblingjuv, pinx.
Painted by Dominicus van der Smissen, The original in possession of Mr. Horner, in Ulnv actively in the behalf of his compatriots. They were presented at Court ; they were celebrated in prose and in verse ; their portraits were painted ; and four sonatas " pour le clavecin " were engraved and published. In England the family were re- ceived most kindly by the King and the Queen, who, as is well known, were passionate amateurs of music.
The curiosity of the Londoners to hear the children was great ; the learned Daines Barrington proved the genius of Wolfgang in many ways, and then made it the subject of a letter preserved in the an- nals of the "Philosophical Transactions" of the year ; and guineas chinked pleasantly together in Leopold's pocket. Here Wolfgang wrote three symphonies, four according to Jahn and Koechel, but Wilder gives good reasons for doubting the date of the one in B-flat major. He also dedicated six sonatas for pianoforte and violin or flute to the Queen. His London visit benefited his education.
Pohl in his interesting and valuable " Mozart in London " gives a full account of the condition of music at the time. Wolfgang had an opportunity of hearing HandePs oratorios and Italian opera ; he became intimate with Christian Bach ; he heard the castrate Tenducci, the master of cantabile ; he took singing lessons of the famous male soprano Manzu- oli. In July Leopold and the children started for the Hague ; at Lille, Wolfgang was seriously ill, and at the Hague the sister was attacked by a vio- lent fever. Wolfgang wrote while in Holland six sonatas and other pieces.
After passing through Paris and Swiss towns, the family arrived at Salzburg in November, Wolfgang was pleased at see- ing again his favorite cat, and then under his father's direction he began the study of the " Gra- dus" of Fux. In he learned Latin and set to Latin words a comedy, " Apollo et Hyacinthus," at the instigation of the Archbishop, who had hitherto played the part of doubting Thomas.
He also wrote four pianoforte concertos for his own use in concerts. Leopold was not blind to the fact that Italy was the home of great composers and illustrious singers ; that its atmosphere was stimulating to musical thought ; that its very name was synonymous with music. Under pretext of a short visit to Vienna, he made his excuses to the Archbishop and started, in September, , with his family on a longer jour- ney. In Vienna, the children were seized with small- pox, and it was not until January, , that they were able to enter into the musical life of the town.
The pastoral theme of the instrumental introduction, the intrada, anticipates in a singular manner the opening of Beethoven's Third Symphony. Wolfgang's first mass was given in public, and he himself directed. The Archbishop of Salzburg sent word to Leopold that his pay would continue only while he was ac- tually in Salzburg, and so the family returned home. But the Italian journey was still in Leopold's head, and hoping to pay the expenses of the trip by giving concerts, he started out with Wolfgang in December, At Roveredo and Verona, the enthusiasm of the people was unbounded ; at Milan they met the generous Von Firmian, who was the means of pro- curing a contract for Wolfgang to write an opera for the Christmas holidays ; at Bologna they became acquainted with Father Martini and Farinelli ; at Florence, Wolfgang met his friend Manzuoli and Thomas Linley, the English violinist of his own age ; and in Holy Week they were at Rome, and they heard the Allegri Miserere, The story of the boy memorizing this famous composition at a hearing, writing it out, and correcting it after a second hear- ing, is familiar to all.
The feat provoked the wildest curiosity to see him, and he was looked at super- stitiously, just as, soon after, at Naples his virtuoso- ship was attributed to a ring worn upon a finger of the left hand. The concerts in these towns refilled the drained purse ; in 1 7 70, the pope ennobled the boy, giving him the cross of the Golden Spur ; and he was received into the famous accademia filar- monica of Bologna.
Meanwhile Wolfgang was con- sidering the opera promised for Milan, and the 26th of December, , " Mitridate, re diPonto" was produced and received with unbounded enthu- siasm. It was given twenty times, and the impres- ario hastened to make a new contract with the cava- Here filarmonico, as the Milanese called him.
Father and son then visited Turin and Venice, and about this time Wolfgang probably wrote the ora- torio "Betulia liberata. And now the boy fell in love with a woman ten years his elder. She was betrothed to another, and her marriage and Wolfgang's return to Milan in August ended the affair.
Although in the house where he lodged, violinists, a singing teacher, and an oboe player plied assiduously their business, Wolfgang finished the promised composition, " Ascanio in Alba " in twelve days. It was first heard October Its success was so great that Hasse's opera " Ruggiero " was neglected ; and the kindly veteran simply said, " This young rascal will cause us all to be forgot- ten. Never- theless there were festivities, and Wolfgang wrote "II sogno di Scipione," a composition unworthy of his pen.
It was in this same year, , that Dr. Charles Burney received a letter from a corre- spondent, saying that the lad was still a pianoforte virtuoso of great merit, but that as a composer he had reached his limit; and the writer then moral- ized over musical precocities, comparing them to premature fruits. Yet at this same epoch, Wolf- gang wrote the celebrated Litany "de venerabile.
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This was the last opera written by Wolfgang for Italy. The impresarios were willing and eager; but the Archbishop was reluctant in granting even ordinary favors to his servant. And here is the end of the first period of Mozart's musi- cal career. The next five years were passed without material change in the circumstances of the family. This and an adjoining room form at present the Mozart-Museum in which are deposited all original family pictures, busts, autographs, compositions, letters, etc. Also, the spinet and grand piano used by Mozart in his later years.
The opera was pro- duced with brilliant success, Jan. This was performed in April, , and this year and the next were years of great fer- tility : music for the church, violin concertos, diver- timenti, serenades, organ sonatas, etc. He worked at the violin to please his father, who had a high opinion of his ability in this direction ; and besides, one of his duties was to play at the court, a duty that he detested. In spite of all this work, these days in Salzburg dragged along, sad and monoto- nous.
Risbeck and other travelers have given us curious details. The piano was used by Mozart during the fast ten years of his life. It has five octaves and was made by the celebrated Anton Walter. It came into the possession of Hummel, the composer and pianist, and finally to the Mozarteum. In the background is seen the large painting of the Mozart family, by Carmontelle. He poked fun at a lover of his sister who gaped at everything he saw in Munich, " so that one could easily tell he had only seen Salzburg and Innsbruck. The tone and the manners of the people are utterly unsupportable.
Sundays, to be sure, with a few of his own age, he played at pea-shooting ; and he was fond of going occasionally to balls. Nor did he associate will- ingly with the musicians. His father hated the Italians in the orchestra : and the German musi- cians were so fond of their cups that when Leopold went to Mannheim he was surprised at the sobriety of the orchestra.
He spent most of his time at home, fond of a canary bird and a dog, teasing his sister about her lovers, adoring his father and mother. Finally the father and son plucked up courage and asked Hieronymus for a leave of absence. It was refused, with the remark that he did not wish one of his ser- vants going about begging from town to town. With his father's permission Wolfgang then sent a letter asking for his dismission. The vanity of the archbishop was hurt, and he was furiously angry; "After all," he said, "it is only one musician the less. In the anxiety of the moment, the father forgot to give the boy his blessing.
And now began the struggles of his life, struggles that only ended with a premature death. They went first to Munich, but there was nothing there. The in- tendant of the theatre, a broker in music, would not accept Wolfgang's proposition to furnish four operas a year for a ridiculously small sum of money ; and there was no other opening.
Then a visit was made to Wolfgang's uncle in Augsburg. Here he was kindly received. He became intimate with Stein, the instrument-maker, and gave piano- forte lessons to his daughter. He swore lasting fidelity to his own cousin. Wlien he left, there was an exchange of portraits, and afterward the cousins corresponded vigorously for a time.
The next stopping place was Mannheim, which was called " the paradise of musicians. It was of un- usual size. The conductor was Cannabich, a man of knowledge and of temper- ament. The performances of this orchestra were celebrated by all the critics of the time. Burney compared the piano and forte to different colors used by painters.
Schubart wrote that the forte was a thunder-storm, the crescendo a cataract, the diminuendo like the purling of a crystal stream, the piano like a breath of spring. And Burney, again, compared the orchestra to an army of generals equally prepared to direct the campaign and to fight. With these men Mozart became intimate. Here too he met the famous Abbe Vogler, the teacher in future years of Weber and Meyerbeer, whom he disliked to the point of hatred. He sneered at his theoretical books, he called him "charlatan" and " humbug.
Now, certain members of the orchestra were engaged for concerts in Paris, and they begged Mozart to go with them, saying that Paris was the only town where such a composer would be appreciated and could make his fortune. At first he embraced their views and tried to convince his father that the plan was for the best.
When everything seemed favorable, Leopold was astonished by the receipt of letters from Wolfgang, saying that he had abandoned the project, and at the same time giving ridiculous reasons for the change. The truth was that the boy was in love. Fridolin Weber, a man of good family and of education, was the prompter and the copyist of the Mannheim theatre. Poor as he was, he had culti- vated the talents of his daughters. They were five in number. The second, Aloysia, was fifteen, dis- tinguished for her beauty and superb voice.
She and Mozart went together to the chateau of the Princess of Orange, — and they loved each other. She sang for the Princess and he played, and the letters written by Wolfgang to his father show more than a musician's interest in Aloysia. For her he wrote a passionate aria, choosing Metastases lines " Non so d'onde. There were tears, and presents.
Aloysia gave her lover two pairs of mittens which she had worked, and Fridolin added a roll of music paper and a copy of Moliere. But Aloysia was piqued and never forgave Wolfp-og for his obedience to his father. After a journey of nine days, mother and son arrived in Paris, the 23d of March, Mozart, sick at heart, looked upon the gay scenes with dis- approving eyes.
Even a month after his arrival, he wrote his father that he was indifferent to all things and that nothing interested him. His room was gloomy, and so small that he could not get a pianoforte between the two cots. However he lost no time in calling upon Grimm and the Mannheim friends. It was preceded by an opera of Piccini and ascribed to Noverre. The " demoiselle Asselin " was praised by the journals, and nothing was said about the music.
The manuscript was discovered by Victor Wilder, and the ballet was played during the winter of at a concert at the Grand Hotel, Paris. A few days after the first perform- ance of this ballet, Mozart's " Paris " Symphony was played in the hall of the Tuileries and with success. A second symphony, played in September, has dis- appeared. Although in many ways this visit to Paris was a sore disappointment to Mozart, and although he wrote bitterly about the condition of music in the French capital, his stay was of great and beneficial influence upon his career.
He heard the operas of Gluck, Gretry, Monsigny, Philidor and the Italians who then disputed the supremacy with the French. In after years he was found surrounded by the works of Gluck and Gretry, and when asked if the study of Italian masters was not more profit- able, he replied : " Yes, as regards melody ; but not for true and dramatic expression. She was stout and subject to apoplectic attacks. As she had no confidence in French physicians, she was attended by an elderly German who was more patri- otic than learned. He gave her rhubarb and wine, against Mozart's wishes, and when Grimm's doctor arrived it was too late for cure.
She was buried probably in the cemetery of the Innocents, which was destroyed in The grief of the son was terrible, and the father was uneasy. Grimm, who was now wholly interested in Italian music sung by Italians, advised Leopold to recall Wolfgang. The archbishop of Salzburg held out inducements to father and son. The father at last commanded the return, and in September, , the philosopher Grimm accompanied the young musician to the diligence and paid his way to Strasburg.
When Wolfgang finally saw that his return was unavoidable, he complained bitterly. With a little patience I should surely have won in France a glorious reputation and a substantial in- come. He took his court to Munich, and Aloysia Weber sang in his theatre. Mozart stopped to see her. She was slow to recognize him, and she did not approve cf the black buttons on his red coat, the French fashion of mourning dress. But he wrote a grand aria for her, and even after her mar- riage to the play-actor Lange he confessed to his father that he still cared for her. It was in January, , tnat Mozart again saw Salzburg, and for a year and a half he stayed there working steadily.
His illusions were gone ; his heart was sad. He loathed the town. He also wrote an opera, "Zaide," which he abandoned, and which was brought out in Frankfort in In he received a commission from Karl Theodore to compose an opera for the Munich carnival of the following year. The text was written by an Italian priest named Varesco, and it told the story of Idomeneus, king of Crete, a story that is closely allied to the famous adventure of Jephtha.
In November Mozart went to Munich and he was graciously received. The Archbishop had only given leave of absence for six weeks ; but Mozart liked Munich and hated to return. He wrote church and instrumental pieces for the Elector, and enjoyed the gay life, until in March the Archbishop, who went to Vienna after the death of the Empress, summoned him. Joseph II. He made him eat with the servants. He would not allow him to play the pianoforte at a concert given for the bene- fit of the widows and orphans of musicians ; and when he was forced into giving him permission, he hated him the more.
He ordered him to be pres- ent every morning in an antichamber to receive orders; and when Mozart rebelled, he forgot his sacred calling and abused him indecently ; " black- guard, regular ass, idiot, dirty rascal," were the mildest of the reproaches. He showed him the door, and Mozart, who had kept his temper, said that if His Grace wished it, he would be only too willing to resign ; and he wrote his father that his prospects in Vienna were bright and that he could not bear the thought of returning to Salz- burg and continual humilia- tion.
His success as a piano- forte player at the charitable concert was such that many desired to take lessons of him, in spite of the price demanded by him — six ducats for twelve lessons. He had heard that his son was living a dissipated life ; and he understood that he was neglecting his religious duties ; it even grieved him to think that Wolfgang ate meat on fast- days. Nor did he ap- prove of the renewed intercourse with the Weber family, for Aloysia was now married to Lange, " a jealous fool," and the mother and daughters were in Vienna. LANGE, actor and painter. From the first volume of " Die Ephemeriden der Litteratur und des Theaters.
Drawn by Lange himself. We owe to him the last portrait of Mozart. He found in the antichamber Count Arco ready to receive him. There were violent words, and finally Arco kicked him out of the room. And thus was Mozart set free. It was summer, the nobility had gone to their country seats, and there were few lessons and few concerts. Mozart worked at pianoforte sonates and dreamed of an opera.
Josephine Aurnhammer, remarkably fat, ugly, and an excellent pianist, fell in love with him, and he was therefore obliged to gradually break off his ac- quaintance with the " sen- timental mastodon. Mozart was pro- claimed victor, and the Em- peror gave him fifty ducats and saw in him the man to assist him in founding the lyric German drama. Stephanie, the inspector of the opera, had provided the text of " Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail " The Escape from the Seraglio and Mozart had already written much of the music before dementi's visit.
In a letter to his father he describes the work of a day. The house was crammed, there was no end to the applause and cheering, and performances followed one another in quick succession. The German opera was established; but the Emperor Joseph only said, " Too fine for our ears, and too many notes. The 4th of August, , Mozart married Con- stanze Weber, before the arrival of his father's for- mal consent.
He had been in love with her for some months, and in December of the year before he had written his father about her. She looks after every- thing in the house, and yet can never do right. She is not ugly, but she is far from being beautiful. Her whole beauty consists in her dark eyes and good figure.
She is not intellectual, but she has com- mon sense enough to fulfil her dudes as a wife and mother. Constanze Weber. From a woodcut by A. Neumann, after a photograph from an aquarelle painting on ivory, in the Mozarteum, in Salzburg. True, she likes to be neat and clean, but not smart ; and almost all that a woman needs she can make for herself ; she understands housekeeping, has the best heart in the world — she loves me and I love her — tell me if I could wish for a better wife?
He saw poverty and "starving brats. With reluctance he finally sent the parental blessing. The wedding was simple, and the supper was given by the Baroness von W T aldstadten, a famous pianist, and a woman of unsavory reputation. The income of the newly- married couple was precarious and uncertain, and so it was until the divorce of death, but man and wife were very happy. They were young — Mozart was twenty-six and Constanze was about eighteen — and they took no thought of the morrow.
The morning after the wedding the Abbe Stadler called upon them, and he was asked to breakfast. Constanze in her marriage dress made the fire and prepared the coffee, and with laughter they thus began their married life, without money and with a carelessness that bordered on recklessness. To Constanze even this pinched life was a relief, for she had long suffered from the intolerance of a drunken mother. Mozart's love for his wife was town talk.
Kelly, the English tenor, in later years, spoke of " the passion- ate love " of the composer. He told her every- thing, even his faults and sins, and she was ever tender and faithful. She was not unmusical ; in fact she played and sang, and was especially fond of fugues. She told him stories while he worked. She cut his meat for him at table.
As she was not robust, he, in turn, was most careful of her health, and often denied himself that she might be more comfortable. There are German romances in existence that deal with alleged love episodes in the life of Mozart, and in which he is represented as often unfaithful to his wife. Grave historians have not thought it an unworthy task to examine the cur- rent scandals of his life in Vienna. It is true that the manners and customs of the Viennese were free and easy. It was an age of gallantry. It is not improbable that he was exposed to many tempta- tions.
At the same time the looseness of his life was grossly exaggerated, and specific charges that were made are now known to be legends. Hum- mel, who lived in Mozart's house as a pupil, wrote in 1 83 1 : "I declare it to be untrue that Mozart abandoned himself to excess, except on those rare occasions when he was enticed by Schikaneder. It was not until the appearance of the "Magic Flute" that he was recognized there as a great operatic composer, and then it was too late. The father, however, opposed the plans of his son, and he even wrote to the Baroness von Waldstadten urging her to reason with Wolfgang, and adding, " What is there to prevent his having a prosperous career in Vienna, if only he has a little patience?
He gave lessons, which were apt to be of a desultory nature. He gave concerts in the Augarten which was frequented by the fashionable people. He gave concerts in the theatre and in different halls, and his own music was performed with great success. His concertos and his playing were cheered to the echo by the Emperor and the nobility. His old love Aloysia sang at one of these concerts, and Gluck sat in a box and applauded.
It is not true that at this time Mozart was unappreciated by the public or that the public was not willing to pay money for the pleasure of hearing him. As a pianoforte player he was sur- feited with applause. His subscription ' concerts were crowded. At one he received four hundred and fifty ducats ; at two concerts in Prague in he received one thousand florins.
He played reg- ularly in private concerts given by members of the nobility, and it was the custom of the Viennese aris- tocracy to reward distinguished artists liberally. On the other hand he made but little by the publica- tion of his compositions. Nor did he fare better in his dealings with theatrical managers. The usual payment in Vienna for an opera was one hundred ducats.
Upon the whole, Mozart was probably as well treated from a pecuniary point of view as the majority of the musicians of his time. He had no head for business, and he was constantly in want of money. A few months after his marriage he was threatened with an action for non-payment of a bill. He was constantly borrowing small sums from Peter to pay Paul. His letters abound in proofs of his embarrassments. At different times he tried plans of reform; from March, , until February, , he kept an account book, and the entries were neatly written.
But Constanze was not the housewife praised by King Lemuel. A son was born in , who died in the same year, and in the summer a visit was paid to Salz- burg. A mass, which Mozart had vowed in his heart before his marriage if he succeeded in taking Constanze there as his wife, was performed ; he wrote duets for violin and viola to help Michael Haydn, who was prevented by sickness from satisfy- ing the Archbishop's command ; he sketched a part of an opera, " L'Oca del Cairo.
Neither Leopold nor Marianna was really fond of Constanze, and Mozart was displeased because none of the trinkets that had been given him in his youth were offered to his wife. He returned to Vienna in October. In the father returned the visit. He wept for joy at hearing Wolfgang play the pianoforte concerto com- posed for the blind pianist, Marie Paradies ; he heard string quartets of his son played by Haydn, Dittersdorf, Wolfgang and Vanhall ; and Haydn said to him, " I assure you solemnly and as an hon- est man, that I consider your son to be the greatest composer of whom I have ever heard.
There were secret associations, brotherhoods of all descriptions, more or less closely allied to Freemasonry, through- out Germany during the latter half of the eighteenth century. Many wished to join together in fighting for liberty of conscience and independence of thought ; and, as Herder, Wieland, Goethe, they saw in Freemasonry " a means of attaining their highest endeavors after universal good.
It is not surprising that Mozart, with his love for humanity, his warm sympathies for all that is good and noble, should enter eagerly into masonic ties and duties. He contemplated the founding of a secret society of his own. His lodge was the oldest in Vienna, "Zur gekronten HofT- nung," and for this lodge he wrote vocal and instru- mental works, one of which, the " Trauermusik " is of great beauty and originality.
In the German opera in Vienna was almost extinct. Aloysia Lange chose Mozart's " Escape from the Seraglio " for her benefit, and the com- poser directed it ; Gluck's " Pilgrimme von Mekka " was given, as well as Benda's melo-dramas. The next year it was proposed to reinstate German opera in competition with the Italian, and the scheme was carried out, but the performances were not equal to those of the Italian opera, and Mozart was not pitted by the Emperor as a native com- poser against the foreigner Salieri. The Italian operas were popular with the court and the people, and the better singers went over to the Italian side.
Paesiello and Sarti were welcomed heartily in Vienna, and their operas received the patronage of the Emperor. This singular man was ap- pointed theatrical poet by Joseph II. He quarreled with his benefac- tor, who engaged a rival as his librettist. Da Ponte looked about for a composer with whom he could join against his enemies, and he entered into negotia- tions with Mozart. Beaumarchais' comedy, " Le Mariage de Figaro," had finally been put on the stage of the Theatre- Francais in ApriL ; it was exciting popular attention ; and Mozart wished an adaptation for his music.
The adaptation would be an easy task, but the comedy itself was not allowed in the Vienna Theatre. The poet was in the good graces of the Emperor and he confided the plan to him. Large oil painting by de la Croce born I , a pupil of Lorenzonh, painted in I The original is in the Salzburg Mozarteum and seems to have been repeatedly and unskilfully retouched.
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Titling Gothic , by David Berlow. To me it feels a more like old standbys Univers and Helvetica, but with the panache of custom-lettered advertising headlines from the fifties and sixties. Estilo , by Dino dos Santos. Chris Rugen states: The geometric simplicity of the characters is the basic step in this stylish Deco face's surprising range. Exchange, by Tobias Frere-Jones. Proprietary commission. Not available for licensing. Christian Schwartz says: The real genius of this typeface is that it still has enough formal ties to DowText that I really doubt whether many of the readers will notice a difference.
Darka , by Gabriel Martinez Meave. Mark Jamra raves: Darka is a fine achievement — not only for its crisp tension and accomplished nuances, but also for its sheer inventiveness. FF Milo , by Michael Abink. Cheshire Dave comments: It's like a more modern, more square Gill Sans.
The legs and tails e. Anyone searching for a versatile sans would likely be very happy with FF Milo. Fabiol , by Robert Strach. It has a very sensual touch and an almost "hand-made". It is not irregular or pretentious. Rumba , by Laura Meseguer. Jan Middendorp loves it: Script typefaces are published at a dazzling rate nowadays; but Rumba is one of the most personal and most intelligent ones I've seen in a while. If anything, it's close to some American gothics, but becomes more German as it gets bolder. An interesting hybrid.
Omnes , by Joshua Darden. Armin Vit comments: The italics truly stole my heart. If you can look at Omnes Black Italic and not feel joy, you have Yoohoo running through your veins and you should get that checked. Omnes is chameleonesque. Last year we designed the identity for a non-profit organization devoted to fighting childhood obesity and we used Omnes for each kind of application and audience without missing a beat. Paperback , by John Downer.
Paul Hunt states: Paperback's handsome appearance is enhanced by a range of optical sizes, so everything from miniscule body copy to ginormous headlines looks clean and crisp. The roman exhibits a warmth that is absent from most typefaces following the same rationalist construction principles. Margie Script , by G. Marggraff, Dan X.
Anna Malsberger: Margie is a sexy, robust script that commands attention, a typeface that knows how to play a crowd. Wearing ball terminals and flauncy flourishes like big baubles and gauzy scarves, you might think she was compensating for a lack of substance. The fonts form a handsome quartet: diverse in scope, yet sufficiently tame for newspaper work. Just as scribes would fit more letters onto a page by breaking the curves on their strokes, Karsten tells the forms in Tiptoe who's boss.
Instead of letting the curves themselves define weight growth, his unorthodox angles allow for more density without sacrificing letter integrity. The result is a heavy typeface with surprisingly open counters and increased legibility. Odile , by Sibylle Hagmann. The initial caps have a perfectly balanced, interesting texture with carefully designed curves, which are contrasted with abruptly placed straight lines. Just the right amount of flair is added in the Initials, whereas the playful and intricate Deco Initials look like modern reinterpretations of medieval illuminated capitals.
Hrant Papazian comments: The confluence of competence, freedom and kiai more on that below evident in Palatino Sans is breathtaking. The texture of its setting is dynamic yet serene, reminiscent of a masterful exhibit of martial arts. Officially, the brilliance of this effort is ascribed to the old master, Zapf. But I, for one, have to wonder whether this isn't essentially a product of Kobayashi instead, delivering a personal showing of bujutsu. Freight Big and Display, by Joshua Darden.
This one was expected by all typophiles. Dyana Weissman explains: This family is insane. Not only because of the styles, but also because of its charming little quirks. While we move out of the era of the antiseptic sans serifs, Freight Sans offers refreshing anomalies that warm up the design. Young Finesse , by Doyald Young. The subtle slim calligraphic strokes is pure beauty. Based on classic Roman proportions — like a modern, slim and gentle serifless version of Van Krimpen's Lutetia and clear references to Hermann Zapf's Optima — it transcends all references and takes it step further.
Esta , by Dino dos Santos. Brad Pityo says: It possesses the characteristics of recent serif typefaces — like Fabiol, Delicato, and Relato — with a Mediterranean-Catalan twist. If Esta's warm and curvy teardrops don't win you over, its versatility will. Esta is economical and humble when set small, but its strokes and counterspaces can also dance beautifully — in a postmodernist sort of way, believe it or not — when set large.
Luxury , by Dino Sanchez and Christian Schwartz. Kris Sowersby comments: No longer shall we slum it with Helvetica, fake it with Trajan, or be shamed by out-dated Optima. The Luxury Collection is made available and affordable to us lowly typographic peons and our budget-conscious clients by the style mongers at House Industries.
This impressive comprehensive system of fonts was made for the German national rail system Deutsche Bahn AG and you can't buy it. Richard Kegler: This practical and well-considered type system was made to suit the many needs of the client and performs with utmost efficiency. It looks great too. In , Schwartz and Spiekermann were awarded a gold medal by the German Desig Council for this system of fonts. Confetti , by Josep Patau. Stephen Coles himself writes: Confetti hits the market at just the right time, joining Signal , Loupot , Zigarre , and Coptek in a group of underexposed retro scripts.
The original typefaces were a pair, called Escritura Energica and Escritura maravilla. Amalia OurType , by Nikola Djurek. Eben Sorkin mulls: a type family quietly breaking conventions of matching serifs, modes of contrast, and letter shape — all to good effect. Amalia feels open and approachable despite its Didone contrast usually associated with formality and authority. It also features a finely restrained but almost cheeky exuberance. Bethany Pevy b. She is from Jacksonville, FL. She made the stylish curly serif typeface Air Quill Designer in of the script typefaces Lovely a retro monoline script , Ellisa font duo , Jolly, Unleash, Dawn and Edmonton, the art deco typeface Empire, the display font duo Wild One, the fashion mag typefaces Lucky and Vienna, the curly serif Erica, the display typeface Abigail, the layerable shadow typeface Peachy, and the sans typefaces Super Basic, Neon, Lumina Peignotian , Jolly Sans, Unleash Sans, and Tropicana.
Brazilian graphic designer and prolific creator of free typefaces, which often combine calligraphy, retro signage, and grunge. Panhead grunge Western face. Abstract Fonts link. American designer of Growth a curly font inspired by the Parkmerced neighborhood in San Francisco , Quandary Australia's self-proclaimed number one chalkart studio, which offers free fonts designed by Peter Stanton, all done ca.
Blushbutter [Vanessa Trendle]. Melbourne, Australia-based scrapbooking company of Vanessa Trendle b. Their fonts include Blushbutter Fairy Floss , curly caps , Blushbutter Whimsy , more curly caps , and Blushbutter Fae , pixie dingbats. MyFonts site. Bonnie Clas has completed her B. She lives in New York City. She also did the lettering for tens of projects. Boris Dworschak. In , Boris joined Union Fonts , where you can get his typeface Dakar He started his own design studio, Boris Dworschak in BrainEaters is Brad O.
Link at FontDiner. Another Fontspace link. Springfield, OH-based designer of the curly typeface Beauty and the Beast Brian J. Bonislawsky [Astigmatic One Eye]. Mexico City-based designer of the curly vampire font Lirixa Fairport, NY-based designer of the curly school project typeface Regnant Annotations: Accumulation: a hacker font. Amadeus : music-themed letters. Boingo : a beautiful curly script. Griffin: bewitched letters. Moteefe: an art deco typeface modeled after Marcia Loeb's alphabet.
Riesling : an ornamental hairline display face. Windsong : calligraphic script. An orphaned curly Victorian font downloadable from Dafont, and made in In , she went commercial via Creative Market. Brownfox [Gayaneh Bagdasaryan]. Brownfox is independent type foundry based in Moscow, and managed by Gayaneh Bagdasaryan. They specialize in the design and production of Latin and Cyrillic fonts for print and for screen. They are the organizers of the first Russian international type conference Serebro Nabora.
Their first typefaces in , all posted at Google Web Fonts , include imonetta In , we also find Super Disco an art disco layered typeface family by Gayaneh Bagdasaryan. Institut is an industrial-strength sans typeface designed by Vyacheslav Kirilenko with participation of Gayaneh Bagdasaryan. Typefaces from Gerbera a sans face co-designed with Vyacheslav Kirilenko , Formular by Vyacheslav Kirilenko and Gayaneh Bagdasaryan: a Swiss sans family for Latin and Cyrillic , Activist a minimalist all caps typeface commissioned by the Anticorruption Foundation.
Jesper Birk's FunkDaFont series. Other URL. Burghal Design [Kate Peters]. California, She describes herself as a former punk rock photographer, model, photo assistant and Jesus of the Week, who began designing fonts in as an alternative, drug-free therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder. Lorenz Lopetz Gianfreda 's foundry in Bern, Switzerland, est. Brunner , Brockelmann , free , Kristallo , very original display face and Billiet In , Gianfreda designed BD Barbeaux a condensed typeface with the fashionable chic of the French art nouveau or film noir. Typefaces from BD Westwork.
View the Typedifferent typeface library. Turkish graphic designer who created a curly hand-drawn alphabet in American digital artist b. Creator of the grunge handwriting typeface misselhorn and the curly typeface Mountain High His truetype fonts consist of artsy handwritten and often curly letters. Fun to play with. Callie Hegstrom [MakeMedia Co]. Canada Type [Rebecca Alaccari]. Foundry in Canada, est. Interview with Rebecca. MyFonts page. Middleton's Wave design for the Ludlow foundry, circa Weber foundry. Patrick Griffin made Leather , after Imre Reiner's blackletter face , Secret Scrypt , Skullbats , Slang , a blood scratch face , Bluebeard , Expo , an octagonal family , and Dancebats Simone Wilkie designed Boyscout after the handwriting of her son.
Rebecca also made Steiner Special , a revival of Swing, a film type by Peter Steiner, , Genesis , a digitization and extension of Grayda, a calligraphic script of Frank H. Sniffin's Raleigh Cursive , ATF , Orotund , after the s typeface Eight Ball; this was extended again in in her art nouveau typeface Huckleberry , which is a revival of the typeface of Gustav Jaeger called Mark Twain , Pendulum , a fantastic flowing script based on Nebiolo's Americana, , Jojo , a flower child typeface after Spring, by Bernard Jacquet , Mascara , Gala , after Neon , Giulio da Milano at Nebiolo and Bella Donna , after a script made by Alessandro Butti in , called Rondine.
A later document states that it is based on work by British artist Rachel Yallop from , Evolver , a 4-style futuristic family , Ambassador Script , an Alaccari-Griffin revival of the angle-reduced calligraphic script Juliet by Nebiolo, In , Philip Bouwsma joined Canada Type, and designed a great calligraphic blackletter-inspired family, Torquemada. He designed many other typefaces for Canada Type in subsequent years.
VIP , Rebeca Alaccari is a humanist sans serif uppercase and figures combined with a freshly redrawn revival of the classic VGC Constanze initials originally designed by Harry Brodjian in , and even further back, the Constanze Initials by Joachim Romann , Stempel. Sympathique , Alaccari is an ultra-thin and ultra-tall typeface in the mold of Bernhard Fashion and other era poster or film typefaces they say that it is rooted in the film typefaces Hairstreak and Mossman.
Filmotype Giant , a condensed sans and its italic counterpart, Filmotype Escort were bth co-designed with Patrick Griffin. Catalog of its typefaces. Bandung, Indonesia-based type designer. Typefaces from Ineffable regular and grunge , Saqanone, Salmonberry, Huckleberries, Mongli a sharp-edged sans , Retros inline , Andrade brush style , Amecas squarish , Queenata signage script , Ranania script , Paradise calligraphic , Valery, The Mastiff, Little Edelweiss curly informal typeface , Loverstruck, Calamandria, Pulsate stencil , Peanut, Sedalia brush script , Delaboean, Rhapsody blackletter , Chiqarine connected script , Berretti a Broadway style art deco typeface , Cupello Sons a geometric serif , Quella brush script , Hello Alpha, Historia, Desmosedici.
In , during her studies in Bandung, Indonesia, Olivia Theresa created the frilly ornamental caps typeface Sambasa , which was designed on a Georgia skeleton. Behance link for Olivia Theresa. Creative Market link for Heroglyphs. Carine de Wandeleer. Carine de Wandeleer was born in Argentina to a French-Belgian immigrant family. She studied fine arts and graphic design at University of Buenos Aires, but lives and works in Spain. Kycka is a hand-printed slab serif family designed for children's books. Karty , Eurotypo is a blackboard bold pair of typefaces inspired by Baskerville.
Marilyn , Eurotypo is an informal bouncy heavy sans face. Natalie is a condensed slab serif face. In , she published the connected script family Gilda , the informal cursive typefaces Zanya , Miss Seshat Eurotypo and Belha , the script typeface Lirio Eurotypo , the hand-printed Pimpin , and the fat finger family Souffle. Typefaces from Aleka a vampire script in the style of Bombshell Pro , Mots a light feminine script , Vernaccia , Eydis connected script , Bonna a successful calligraphic family , Rocha funky cartoon style , Mussa a curly children's book font , Onna multiline script , Blondy curly signage script , Gemma connected script , Gemmadonati another connected script , Lavinia signage script , Ameglia seductive upright flourished vernacular script.
Typefaces from Parisi calligraphic script , Scintillae Script , Santa Rita signage script , Kira brushy font , Amorino , Aprilis signage script , Redbird brush script , Muscari connected script , Ambar connected script with a roman caps set called Ambar Serif. Meijer , Barcares , MyBella a casual calligraphic script , Skyr Pro hand-crafted , Gageac a decorative didone , Atmosfera a glamour sans based on didone contrast , Waylom script.
Carl Crossgrove [Terrestrial Design]. Carla Zetina-Yglesias. Carla is a graphic designer originally from Costa Rica. She lives in Minneapolis, MN. With Chank Diesel, she is working on a curly bilined script typeface called Willow Whisp She designed Aguas Frescas , Chank Foundry: an outlined hand-drawn curly display type family in Horchata and Tamarindo styles. Santiago, Chile-based creator of the curly Victorian pre-art nouveau typeface Valencia Designer of the curly handwriting fonts Moxie, Tootsie, FunkyBet. Wolgast-based type designer Peter Wiegel b. Designer of these free fonts: In Kufi Pattern.
In Aurach Tri a trilined typeface , Googee monoline circle-themed sans , Gianna medieval script , Hamburger Schwabacher. Still in , he published a number of school scripts, including Neue Rudelskopf , Deutsche Normalschrift , Imrans School , Rastenburg German school font , and Bienchen. The font is redrawn from the original intertitles , Youbilee a font with laurels. In Alfabilder dingbats , Gondrin athletic lettering with a 3d effect , Helvetia Verbundene making Helvetica into a school script?
One more URL. Fontsy link. Klasse, GruenewaldVA3. A list of typefaces in alphabetical order, with descriptive comments provided by Reynir Heidberg Stefansson from Iceland: 18th Century Kurrent Kurrent-style handwriting, Wiegel-coded , Alfabilder Alphabetic picture font for the German alphabet , Amptmann Script Partly-connected, upright writing, used on Prussian Railways pattern drawings , ApolloASM Jugendstil, vaguely resembling an ornate Bocklin , Avocado Handwriting, broad-nib pen-style , Berlin Email Narrow sans-serif, based on emailled signage; Wiegel-coded , Berlin Email Serif Narrow serif, based on emailled signage; Wiegel-coded , Beroga All-minuscule, rounded marker-style sans-serif with ca.
CAT Fonts link. Creator of the curly typeface Seasons Spring , and the ornamental caps typeface Christmabet Australian designer b. She also created the handwriting fonts i-hearts , curly and Yes Miss , and the blackboard bold font Narnean Honduras-based designer b.
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Cecilia Vizan [Pio Pio]. Central Type Foundry. Foundry from St. Louis, est. Discussion of its types by McGrew. It is an art nouveau display typeface with lots of swashy flair. Check the Adobe version Harpers was designed for the popular newsweekly of the same name. Multiform , created for coloring. No known digitization. Quaint Roman : a great hand-drawn alphabet.
Not digitized yet. Designer at Thirstype of the highly original curly dingbat font Veejay , with Rick Valicenti. She also made the connected upright script Yarny Yarn Yarn , knitting wool face. During her studies in Singapore, Chew Xinjie designed the curly typeface Whirl Chicken [Tim Barnes]. British outfit located in London. The designer is called Akira there, and another URL is given as well. British creator of these fonts: Curls , a curly sans , Curlial , Absolute Zero , pixel face , and Minimono , pixel face.
Danish designer b. FF stands for Forgotten Fonts. Creator of the hand-drawn typefaces Raining in White , curly , Fancy Pants , like an old typewriter and Christina's Font , curly. Lets Do Brunch is a grungy italic typeface. Rochester, NY-based designer of the curly decorative didone typeface Gardina German designer from Trier, b. Creator of the quirky curly font The Croach Christopher Hansen [Livin Hell was: Webbyen.
Originally from Brooklyn, Christopher K. Wright now teaches graphic design, web design and typography at Indian River State College in Florida. He created the commercial curly Victorian typeface family Exposition American graphic and type designer who created Semester a curly almost Victorian script and Joseph Venetian almost blackletter in Cindy Kinash [Cultivated Mind].
Prolific author, b. Parker in , from a design by Clarence P. It is an ornamental form of roman letter, with curly serifs, and tendrils at the ends of light strokes. It was recast in , and copied in one size by Los Angeles Type. Download here. More direct link to Pape's digitizations.
Designer in of free hand-printed typefaces Graffito, Phat, be-my-valentine, curly-Claudia, mnm, schools-Back, slightly-different. Foundry in Cleveland that existed from until , when it was absorbed by ATF. It was also called H. Thorpe Mfg. The H. Thorp Mfg. In , the Victorian capitals typeface Oxford No. MFC Damask Flourish is a floriated caps typeface from the same source. Wildan Yakob Cob Studios, formerly Aidan, and before that, WY Creative, Bandung, Indonesia created the spurred vintage typeface Mandon, the spurred Victorian typefaces Zumba and Munozudo, the curly typeface Afatar, the brush script typeface Heina, the curly typeface Bahamastch, the script typeface Ariandi and the vintage decorative typeface Lanedey in In , he designed Arthila Script, Noera, Cafetila a bold script , Willona brush script , and the connected brush script Mathila Script.
New Behance link. Newer Creative Market link. Newer Behance link. Corradine Fonts [Manuel Eduardo Corradine]. He graduated from the School of Graphic Design of the National University of Colombia in , and became a graphic designer. He started by custom-designing fonts and by making typefaces for his own company, Casa Papelera El Cedro The Cedar Papermaking House , for printing invitation cards. Today, he is one of Colombia's principal type designers. He also teaches at Universidad Piloto de Colombia in Bogota.
Fonts fgrom Miel a curly script , Oferta a signage script , Corradine Handwriting and Corradine Handwriting Italic , , Alberto connected hand , Changua hand-printed. Fonts from Plebeya , connected hand , Mimi's Hand Connected , Legendaria an extensive connected calligraphic family. Fonts from Tecna a techno family co-designed with Sergio Ramirez , Neuron a fantastic style rounded elliptical sans family created together with Sergio Ramirez , Bucanera Soft blackletter , Bucanera Antiqued grungy blackletter , Official a simple monoline sans family , Almibar a connected calligraphic Spencerian script , Eterea a roman all-caps family , Eterea LC the lower case set , Canciller an italic roman, done with Sergio Ramirez , Quarzo , a formal copperplate script done with Sergio Ramirez.
Typefaces from Whisky a large blackletter family with inlines and fills for layering co-designed with Sergio Ramirez; related to German expressionism, it won an award at Tipos Latinos , Whisky Italics , Beauty Script with Juan Sebastian Rincon , Emblema and Emblema Headline tall-legged art deco sans family by Duvan Cardenas , Wild Pen a glyph set of typefaces that can be used to simulate handwriting thanks to smart replacements in Opentype , Sinffonia a thin informal typeface with oodles of choices for swashes.
Typefaces from Be Creative a vintage display typeface , Typnic a varied hand-crafted layered and script typeface family; rhymes with picnic , Typnic Headline Slab. Typefaces from Naugles thick display face based on the Naugles logo , Scrans a modern signage script , Bloque heavy slab family , Bloque Italic. Typefaces from Cristal layered, triangulated and beveled font family, including exquisite Cristal Dingbats and Cristal Frames , Almibar Pro connected calligraphic script.
Typefaces from Tierra Script , Pueblito rustic style. MyFonts link. Fontspring link. View Corradine's typefaces. In , he added Adam and Geu 1. In , the Celtic font Santina became Albina. Cosimo Lorenzo Pancini. Born in Firenze in He co-designed some typefaces there such as Arsenale White Targa Monospace is a sans inspired by Italian vehicle registration plates. It has an handmade version Targa Hand that can be used for comic book lettering. The handwriting of Lord Byron led Pancini to develop the brush script typeface Byron , Zetafonts.
MyFonts credits him with the rounded avant garde sans family Antipasto , but elswhere we read that this typeface is made by Matteo di Iorio, so there is some confusion. It was extended in by Pancini as Antipasto Pro. He also designed the calm bold geometric rounded sans typeface Cocogoose ; replaced by Cocogoose Pro in and the stylish deco font Offensive Behaviour. Cocogoose Letterpress is free.
Cocogoose is part of the Coco Gothic family, a collection of twelve typefaces each inspired by the fashion mood of every decade of last century, named after fashion icon Coco Chanel. Cocogoose is Coco Gothic for the s. In , Pancini published the grand family Coco Gothic. It comes with substyles that recreate many moods, including art nouveau and arts and crafts Cocotte , Italian propaganda style and Italian deco Cocosignum , hipster style CocoBikeR , or Bauhaus Cocomat.
Still in , Cosimo and Zetafonts published the connected creamy baseball script Bulletto, the grungy handvetica Neue, and the calligraphic wedding typeface Hello Script. The Zetafonts team extended the original design to six styles and multilingual coverage.
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The ExtraBold is free. Still in , Pancini designed Calligraphunk, an experimental typeface that mimicks polyrythmic calligraphy, by alternating two sets of lowercase letters to emulate handwriting. This humanist sans-serif typeface is part of the Beatrix family Beatrix Nova, etc. Its capitals are directly derived from the stone carvings in Florence's Santa Croce Cathedral. Beatrix keeps a subtle lapidary swelling at the terminals suggesting a glyphic serif, similar to Hermann Zapf's treatment in Optima. Amazing Grotesk is based on a logo designed by Francesco Canovaro.
Hello Script and Hello Sans can be used for layering and coloring. The Christmas-themed version is Hello Christmas. Pancini designed the strong typeface family Body Grotesque and Body Text in , together with Andrea Tartarelli. It was conceived as a contemporary alternative to modernist super-families like Univers or Helvetica. In , Cosimo Lorenzo Pancini and Andrea Tartarelli co-designed the sans typeface family Kabrio , which gives users four different corner treatment options.
Anaphora It features a wedge serif design with nine weights from thin to heavy. Its wide counters and low x-height make it pleasant and readable at text sizes while the uncommon shapes make it strong and recognizable when used in display size. Anaphora covers Latin, Greek and Cyrillic. Canovaro's Arista served as a basis for the style monolinear rounded sans typeface family Aristotelica by Cosimo Lorenzo Pancini and Andrea Tartarelli.
Codec by Cosimo Lorenzo Pancini, Francesco Canovaro and Andrea Tartarelli is a geometric sans typeface family in which all terminal cuts are horiontal or vertical. His Double Bass is a jazzy 4-style typeface family that pays tribute to Saul Bass's iconic hand lettering for Otto Preminger's The Man with the Golden Arm film title sequence and other movies, Bass's vibrating, almost brutal cut-out aestethics, and the cartoonish lettering and jazzy graphics of the fifties.
In , he published the sharp wedge serif typeface Blacker to pay homage to the s. Still in , he designed the swooping polyrhythmic calligraphic typeface Calligraphunk. In , Cosimo Lorenzo Pancini and Andrea Tartarelli designed Holden , a very Latin cursive sans typeface with pointed brush aesthetics and fluid rhythmic lines. In , Cosimo Lorenzo Pancini, Francesco Canovaro and Andrea Tartarelli published the monolinear geometric rounded corner amputated "e" sans typeface family Cocogoose Classic , the sans family Aquawax Pro , and the condensed rounded monoline techno sans typeface family Iconic.
Monterchi is a custom font for an identity project for a famous fresco in Monterchi, developed under the art directorship of Riccardo Falcinelli. The first batch included India Ink , Raspberry Jam a delightfully curly vampire script , Profiterole a feminine pastry shop script , and Califunkia pure psychedelia , and Domani CP a faithful digital revival of an old photo-typositing typeface called ITC Didi. Originally designed by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnese, Domani brings to life a font that has been somewhat neglected by the digital era until now.
In , he added Swashington. In , he designed Plectrum CP a Peignotian sans typeface family with very large x-height. Later in , he set up Jukebox Collection. Typefaces from Schmalfette CP.