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The stylistics of Leo Spitzer , p. Nevertheless, the creative assimilation of the contributions by Mikhail Bakhtin ; 2 3 in his study of the literary style has questioned the monologism the idea that there is a single voice that is expressed in a poem, story, or novel to propose the notion of dialogism that there are several voices and styles that appear in a literary text that allows the study of popular culture expressions, such the ones in the work of Rabelais, for example. Bottiroli believes that there is no single style in a literary work but that different styles are manifested in a poem, novel, or story.

It must be added that the so-called General Textual Rhetoric, which came into light in the s, does not exclusively zero in on the elocutio, nor does it seek to prepare a mere list of figures of speech, but tries to approach the dispositio and inventio without neglecting the essential role of memory and actio. Bottiroli , pp. In the expression styles of thought we see 1 the polyphonic conception of style, 2 the link between elocutio style refers to that part of rhetoric as knowledge and inventio , and that 3 style cannot be fully understood without a structure that is, without a dispositio because ideologies are expressed, with a certain order, in a certain stylistic position in the literary or philosophical sphere.

Bottiroli , p. Thus, he overcame the language-speech dichotomy posed by Saussure, since the Russian theorist considered the dialogical character to be in the realm of speech. This is linked to the project of translinguistics, formulated by Bakhtin , 4 which privileges the analysis of dialogism as a key principle in the speech of the characters or the senders of speech. The first is the separative style, which, based on a disjunctive logic, discards ambiguities and is of a rigid nature. The second is the distinctive style, which displays the functioning of a strategic intelligence that involves the treatment of oppositions and the flexibility of thinking; it is in contrast to the rigidity of the separative style.

In this case, dichotomies are not rigid but have greater dynamism. Undoubtedly, the 19th-century positivism is framed in the field of the separative style, because it considers that sociology is social physics, as argued by Comte, and that social sciences are therefore conceived as a reflection of natural sciences. To this end, he proposes the operation of four figural spheres or cognitive spheres for the organization of the world.

Inside each sphere certain literary figures are situated. The first sphere is the metaphorical sphere , where metaphors or similes of the most diverse nature are located.

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The second is the synechdotic sphere, which indicates, as its name implies, the presence of synecdoches that propose one-part-for-the-whole, the-whole-for-one-part, genus-species, species-genus relationships, among other cases, in a certain poem, novel, canvas, or philosophical treatise. The third is the metonymic sphere, in which we recognize the operation of metonymy based on the cause-effect, effect-cause links, among other possibilities.

The fourth is the negation sphere, which includes rhetorical figures such as antithesis, irony, oxymoron, or paradox because they highlight the functioning of oppositions. The figural sphere deep stratum should not be confused with the rhetorical figure superficial stratum since the former involves thought processes there is a metaphorical, metonymic, synchronic, or antithetical thinking , whereas the latter constitutes a rhetorical resource that is a means for the act of ordering the environment according to a certain conceptual organization.

For the Nicaraguan poet, poetry is synonymous with a repertoire of techniques, rhythms, and types of stanza. A representative case of distinctive style is the poetry of Octavio Paz in The Violent Season , in which the Mexican poet deals with the contradiction between Western and Amerindian culture in Sunstone, a poem referring to the Aztec calendar of days. However, it simultaneously analyzes the contemporary society where violence and eroticism prevail, which has a liberating and rebellious purpose regarding the alienation of the modern individual. This is a book in which the Peruvian thinker distinguishes between the West and the Andes.

To do so, he recognizes three periods in Peruvian literature: the colonial in which Peruvian literary creation is an imitation of that produced in Spain , the cosmopolitan in which Peruvian poetry taps into the contributions of French literature , and the domestic when Peruvian literature acquires its own personality.

In this book, he uses an overflow of dreamlike imagination that freely associates metaphors with echoes of surrealist automatism.

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Another sample is The Golden Fish by Gamaliel Churata, who uses a type of literary essay that assimilates the sources of mythical Andean thinking both Quechua and Aymara and Western philosophy, through a metaphorical style that raises the idea of cyclical time, typical of Amerindian civilizations. It is important to note that pluralities of styles in a literary or philosophical work are always present.


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Bottiroli discusses the idea of the uniqueness of a style and tries to understand it dynamically by emphasizing the notion of the struggle between different stylistic stances. In this case, Vallejo writes poetry of a political nature, influenced by Marxism, which deals with conjunctural issues such as war, Spanish civilization, or the socialist utopia as to the liberation of man against the alienation that reigns in capitalism. The Black Heralds is comprised of a liminal poem, which bears the same title as the collection, and six sections.

Our hypothesis is that, in this book, the separative style predominates but conflicts with the distinctive and, eventually, with some traits of the confusive regime. In the second, third, and fourth parts of the collection Divers, Of the Earth and Imperial Nostalgias , the separative style of a modernist nature again triumphs; however, some features of the distinctive style are seen in two poems: The Spider and Dead Idyll.

Thus, Vallejo moves away from the separative style to approach the distinctive style:. From a cosmovision perspective, it materializes a categorical questioning of the modernist formal register and the literate city RAMA, , pp.

[audio inédito] Ernesto "Che" Guevara recitando "Los Heraldos Negros" de César Vallejo

Indeed, man suffers you; God is he! Faced with the security of the distinctive style that did not question the divine character of the Creator, the poet now opens the way to ambiguity and conceives that there is a possibility of learning to be God. Finally, the Nietzschean feature of the last verse emphasizes that man happens to become God and this announces a resonance of the confusive style, because it implies that hierarchies have been inverted.

Human being approaches the center of the scene and leaves God in the periphery in a sense. We have chosen these two texts because the struggle between styles of thought is observed at point blank. The poem, with four verses, develops the familiar theme that already implies a departure from the aesthetics of Profane prose. The enjambements , polymetry, and the dialogical tone make the text one of the most typical Vallejo-styled writing in The Black Heralds. Undoubtedly, the title, as a paratext, implies that the discourse is addressed to Miguel as a dedication to the deceased brother.

Thus, the mother, the announcer, and his brother, Miguel, establish metonymic or contiguity relations because they move inside home.

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The fundamental macro-speech act is suggestion. The announcer suggests that the represented recipient Miguel return home. In this sense, the last two verses express the essential axis around which the poem revolves. Let us now see how the figural styles are part of the struggle between styles of thought.

There is no impetus for innovation in the verses cited above.

Poesía completa / César Vallejo - Details - Trove

It is an iteration of how light is linked to joy, the lack of luminosity with melancholy. However, Vallejo seeks to break with modernist poetics and embraces the distinctive style , revealed in the hide-and-seek play between the two brothers, as they both move throughout the house. The flexibility of interpersonal relationships occurs in the exchanging of roles: one brother hides and the other seeks him; then the roles are reversed.

Then, the announcer was left helpless. The last two verses of the poem concentrate the central information of the poem.

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The confusive style clearly becomes evident because of how the cyclic time works. Miguel is dead, but he will return home. Utopia i. This five-stanza poem takes up the theme of family locus. It has three charactors: the father, the mother, and the announcer. The psychological space has changed: the maternal space is associated with tenderness, while the predominant space between the son and the father entails the contradiction between physical closeness and affective remoteness. The macro-speech act is to affirm the communicative impossibility between the announcer and his father.

Therefore, the feeling of loneliness prevails in the family. The speaker perceives his father both asleep and awake, but, in both cases, he perceives that the affective bond between them has deteriorated. To sum it all up, there are a number of styles in The Black Heralds , but Vallejo, similar to every great writer, seeks to free himself from the models imposed by modernism.

For this reason, the Peruvian poet uses two styles of meaning the separative and the confusive to emphasize his stylistic independence and open his discourse to the creative assimilation of colloquial language and avant-garde imagery. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or. Search WorldCat Find items in libraries near you. Advanced Search Find a Library. Your list has reached the maximum number of items. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items. Your request to send this item has been completed. APA 6th ed. Note: Citations are based on reference standards.

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