They are the synthesis, research and additional developments of studies on the social action behavior like dynamic system of the social interactions. The results are presented in strictly synthetic form because their logical and philosophical dissertation, namely scientific elaboration, was done in others contexts.
In these Essays vol. I they are include: Individual and social action named Theory of Values. The impossibility of Freedom in each social system. An Abduction in the modern individualism. The Capitalistic Zusammenbruch last evolution. Sociology , Economics , and Action Research. II - Le soluzioni del profitto, dello sfruttamento e delle disuguaglianze nel sistema capitalistico more. In questo lavoro sono affrontati quattro temi fondamentali che offrono altrettanti problemi riguardo alle dinamiche del sistema o modo di vita capitalistico.
A questi si tenta di offrire una soluzione analitica: 1 la deduzione del Capitalism, Economy analysis. Teaching Documents. Lezioni di sociologia elementare more. Questo manuale tratta la sociologia di base Sociologia generale orientandola, in modo semplice e chiaro, per essere applicabile nei campi delle professioni sociali. Pur essendo utile come base per la classe di laurea L40 sociologia , Pur essendo utile come base per la classe di laurea L40 sociologia , si rivolge in particolare agli Assistenti sociali, agli Educatori, agli Insegnanti delle scuole primarie e ai professionisti del sociale.
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Sociologia per Assistenti sociali Educatori e Insegnanti. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. The most important center for these courses was the Faculty of Agriculture at Portici, and the most significant sociologists were Marselli, Pugliese, Mottura, and Emanuele Sgroi.
The Sociology of Work and Economics. The sociology of work and economics arose in the research agencies, in research centers of large industries, and in labor unions. Adriano Olivetti, building a company and a community, surrounded himself with sociologists, economists, communications experts, and planners. They, and many more, devoted themselves to industrial relations and the rationalization of staff selection in large industries operated by enlightened and paternalistic entrepreneurs like Olivetti. Very often, however, the left-wing slant of their training and their impression of being manipulated led these sociologists to leave the research center after a short stay and to continue their sociological training at universities in the United States.
The publishing house of the same name made available to the Italian public the classics of German and, especially, American sociology. Another forum for the training of sociologists especially in the sociology of labor was the research offices of the labor unions and, to a lesser extent, of the political parties. The factory and labor union conflicts were the main subjects of their volume, with a consequent tendency to identify the "organization" with the factory a pamphlet on the sociology of organizations by G. Bonazzi is, significantly, entitled Dentro e fuori la fabbrica ; Inside and Outside the Factory and the labor union.
These sociologists had few contacts with foreign scholars; when they did, such contacts were oriented toward France and particularly toward the Institut des Sciences Sociales du Travail Institute of the Social Science of Labor in Paris. Urban Sociology and the Sociology of Planning. ILSES dealt with research on neighborhoods, on participation in neighborhoods, and, in general, on the structure of the city.
The approaches were borrowed from the concepts and research of the Chicago School and the group that had formed around Paul Henry Chombart de Lauwe. Thus, among other things, Ernest W. Burgess 's model of concentric areas was verified for Italian cities in Rome and Milan , as was Hoyt's model of sectors.
International Sociology. Sociology entered the universities where both theoretical and empirical sociologists were trained but no attention was given to international sociology. This branch of sociology seeks its identity in the synthesis of ideas from political sociology; the sociology of international relations; and the sociology of ethnic relations, of borders, of towns, and of territories. Relations were developed with scholars from the United States, from Eastern Europe , and from the countries of the European Economic Community.
From the United States, the institute took the research methodology of multivariate analysis, under the direction of Edgar F. Borgatta; it was one of the first institutions in Italy to adopt these techniques. Among the cited research organizations, ISIG is one of the few that carries out an active program that is not encompassed by university activities. There are at least two reasons for this. First, Italian sociology has tended not to be interested in international relations. Second, there has been an acceleration of international interdependence; in recent years there has been great change in the relations between Western and Eastern Europe , and between Europe and the rest of the world.
Academic Institutionalization of Italian Sociology. The most intense activity of the research agencies occurred in the s and s; it was scientific in the full sense of the word, since concrete problems were tackled empirically, starting from a theory generally developed abroad and ultimately returning to the theory. This way of doing research, and of training for research, is quite different from the method adopted in the universities, because it is tied to concrete problems and specific deadlines.
Moreover, in this period, together with the ideas and plans designed to establish sociology in the universities the first chair in sociology was awarded to Ferrarotti in , sociology was taking on an identity as an academic discipline. Italian sociology was now mature and ready to enter the universities with its own sociologists, their empirical experience, and their theoretical preparation; hence it was able to extend the discipline. Italian sociology, as a discipline and as scientific research, has developed strongly. The heart of this development lies more in the universities and university teachers than in the nonacademic institutes that played such a large role until the s.
All this happened with the consolidation of sociology in the university system which had the function of training young researchers and became the channel for legitimizing the scientific character of sociological research. Subsequent developments included the publication of dictionaries and encyclopedias of sociology, the foundation of the Associazione Italiana di Sociologia Italian Association of Sociology , and the formation and coordination of sociological interests in specific areas.
Sociology in the Italian Universities. The complexity of Italian society requires a strong sociological reading of reality, and the nonacademic agencies discussed above could not long meet this need. Moreover, a strong impulse to legitimize sociological analysis came from the student protest movement, which in the mids reached Europe from the United States. Thus sociology entered the universities mainly with the establishment in Trento of the Istituto Universitario di Scienze Sociali University Institute of Social Sciences, later the Faculty of Sociology in and with the reform of political science faculties in The Faculty of Sociology at Trento.
The governing body is composed of ten professors: three jurists, two economists, one statistician, one mathematician the director, Mario Volpato , one ethicist, and the sociologists Braga vice director and Franco Ferrarotti. The first sociologists to teach there were not from the Milan area. The students who enrolled in the first year , and even more in the immediately following years, were strongly motivated to study social problems and came increasingly from regions far from Trento. The Faculty of Sociology, with its four-year program, grants two types of degrees in sociology: general and special.
The general course in the sociological disciplines trains teachers and researchers who will work in universities, international institutions, and centers of research on economic and social problems.
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The special sociology course prepares students for management careers in public administration and in private firms in particular, for research, public relations , and personnel , social insurance offices, agencies for agricultural development, welfare agencies, labor unions and political parties, business consultancy agencies, marketing research offices, and town planning bodies.
As can be seen, this university planning aimed at the extension of the university; moreover, it set out to deal with a society that was both complex and predictable in its organization of problems and phenomena to be studied and, if possible, solved. Things changed with the arrival of the student protest movement. At the University of Trento, different models of teaching and organization were experimented with, leading it to occupy a unique position in the Italian university system. A "critical university," managed by a joint committee of teachers and students, was formed.
The director of the institute and experimenter with this model was Francesco Alberoni, who attracted other teachers interested in this project, in particular from Milan. This situation lasted until ; meanwhile, it triggered experimentation at other Italian universities and to some extent contributed to the reform of the faculties of political science.
The Reform of the Faculties of Political Science. Sociology was offered in twenty-three Italian universities in —, a total of thirty-eight courses taught by twenty-seven professors. At the end of the s, the situation has completely changed, both in terms of the number of universities in which sociology is taught now forty-two , obviously expanded by the establishment of new universities—and in terms of the number of courses and teachers now Moreover, some very substantial centers of sociology have been established, and sociology is taught in all the Italian universities.
The universities with the greatest numbers of sociology courses are in descending order : Rome eighty-four , Bologna thirty-nine , Turin sixty-three , Milan forty-three , and Trento fifty-two. Those with fewer than twenty but at least ten courses are Padua seventeen , Naples sxteen , Calabria fourteen , Florence thirteen , Salerno twelve , Catania eleven , and Palermo ten.
One very important technical reason for these profound changes in the teaching of sociology was the reform of the faculties of political science.
The first faculty of political science in Italy was established in at Florence and called Cesare Alfieri. It was designed to train public officials and, in general, it prepared men for an active life and public debate. As time passed, while it kept these functions, this faculty tended to become transformed into a faculty of social science. After World War II the need was increasingly felt to reform the faculties of political science, detaching them from other faculties particularly from the law faculties and giving them an updated cultural core.
Subsequently such faculties were divided into two two-year courses of study: The first is based on fundamental courses including sociology , and the second is organized into five indirizzi courses of study —international, historical, economic, administrative, and social. In this last course political-social some true sociological curricula are offered; they are obviously more concentrated in the faculties of political science at Rome, Bologna, Turin, Padua, and Milan. The Future of Sociology in the Universities. At present, the teaching of sociology is concentrated in the Faculties of Sociology at Trento, Rome, Naples, Milan, Urbino, Salerno; in the degree courses in sociology at others universities; and in the several faculties of political science.
Sociology courses are also offered by other faculties such as economics and commerce, architecture, medicine, letters and philosophy, and arts , but the current tendency is to reduce this spread. There are at least two reasons for this: the "zero growth" of sociology i. In the future, there will therefore be a tendency to strengthen sociology where it is already strong in the faculties of political science or through the creation of new degree courses in sociology; however, it is likely to disappear or to be excluded from the mainstream where it is peripheral in the faculties of economics and commerce, architecture, and others.
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There are other ways in which the universities can train sociologists, such as Ph. The themes explored by Italian sociology, like those of any national sociology, are closely tied up with the contemporary state of society. Italian society in the s is undergoing profound changes. Of these, the most evident has resulted from the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and its satellites.
The alliances between large organizations and their joint vested interests large-scale capitalists, big trade unions, protected labor , the "Soviet" component of the state economy state-owned industries , and the big political parties lost legitimacy with the birth of new political players the Northern League , new economic players Small and Medium-Sizes Enterprises , and new trade unions smaller, autonomous, and more trade-specific that claimed resources and reduced the size and authority of the large organizations.
The fall of the Iron Curtain has de-ideologized international relations between Eastern and Western Europe , establishing national or ethnic identity as the criterion of statehood. But in Italy, the fall of the great central organizations has made obvious the importance of the role of highly fragmented local political, social, cultural, and economic forces. The burgeoning importance of ethnicity and local parties more in the North than the South and demands for federalism especially in taxation and even independence point to a new society, with the marks of the postmodern.
Growing of affluence has put an end to internal emigration and emigration abroad and directed interest toward women's rights, communications, and information technology, and new religious solutions within and outside the traditional Western religions. By contrast, however, the welfare state, designed and constructed by the society of large organizations and by "big" government, has entered a massive solvency crisis, burdened as it is with a level of debt that is unsustainable in comparison with other developed countries and that it cannot pay.
Solutions have been sought in cuts in public spending and pensions, the growth of the service sector, the involvement of individual citizens, and the campaign for convergence to the Maastricht criteria. Sociology has responded to these changes with the expansion of some areas of study and the contraction of others. The former have shifted to incorporate related disciplines such as political science, theology, computer science, constitutional law, and migration; the latter have been subsumed into disciplines such as economics.
Research institutes have regained an important position, both inside and outside universities, and the spread of sociology courses in universities has stopped. One relatively new theme for sociological research and reflection is national identity, both in terms of establishing whether an Italian national identity actually exists in the minds of Italians and in terms of exploring the local identities that may drive toward claims for independence or forms of federalism.
Here the theme of national identity is combined with ethnic and European identity, and accentuated localism with accentuated cosmopolitanism. Another theme of political sociology centres on changes in the structure of parties and consensus in the wake of the "discovery" that the existing political system is illegal. Much research has been conducted into the mechanisms of political corruption Donatella Della Porta, Mauro Magatti, Vaclav Belohradsky , the renewal of the political class, and the formation of new ruling classes as a result of the transformation of the original illegalities into new legalities Belohradsky These political transformations have changed the way voters feel about politics.
Increases in the numbers of floating voters and nonvoters have given new life and direction to electoral sociology. Opinion polls have become a tool of fundamental importance, and sociologists are studying voting behavior in specialized institutes set up outside universities.
Another dimension in the relaunching of political sociology is international relations, especially the study of post-communist Eastern Europe, including scenario building and forecasts of the workings, duration, and results of the transition there. In this field, too, research and studies have been carried out and conferences organized by institutes, both independent of universities or based in them. The funds used for these initiatives are provided by European programmes—such as Phare, Tacis, Intas, and Democracy—with the aim of creating international scientific and fact-finding networks.
Such scientific institutions have been set up in a large number of Italian towns, first and foremost ISIG in Gorizia, which has specialized for the last thirty years in the ethnic, border, and international questions in the Balkan—Danube area and the former Soviet area. ISIG has established a Forum for European Border Towns, an Ethnic Minorities Observatory, an Italian Futures Studies Academy, and a Permanent Forum for peace initiatives specializing in pilot studies, databases, and the organization of parallel diplomatic meetings for the solution of conflicts.
These initiatives frequently result in the publication of journals and books. Heading the journals are Futuribili , along the lines of Futuribles and Futures , devoting each issue to special themes.
ISIG Magazine is a journal, published in English and Italian, that also deals with particular themes on a monographic basis. Other studies analyze: the factors driving toward the formation of a new Russian empire and the persistent character of Russian religiosity and mysticism; the Balkans and the solution of conflicts through international solidarity to bring in a new order based on protectorates Mroljub Radojkovic, Kosta Barjaba, Alberto Gasparini ; ethnic groups and borders in Europe Luca Bregantini, Alessandro Pannuti, Moreno Zago, Alberto Gasparini ; Arab and Israeli nationalism in the Middle East Elie Kallas ; the transition of the former socialist countries in Eastern Europe.
Other themes undergoing strong development are connected with the modern affluent society : They include women and their position with regard to work, equality, self-fulfilment outside the family, and the family as an institution Chiara Saraceno, Laura Balbo, Pierpaolo Donati ; poverty, and extreme poverty in cities rather than widespread poverty Paolo Guidicini, Giovanni Pieretti ; and the role played by poverty in immigration from the Balkans, Eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean Arab countries Umberto Melotti, Maurizio Ambrosini, ISMU.
Connected to these developments and to the relationship between politics and civil society as seen in an increasingly crisis-bound welfare state are studies Pierpaolo Donati, Ivo Colozzi, Guido Lazzarini, Giuliano Giorio that seek solutions to the crisis through the service sector and that explore Europe and its new forms of citizenship. Other emerging themes indicating change in Italian society and the need for certainties in an uncertain situation are to be found in the relaunching of studies on Italian religion and religiosity Roberto Cipriani, Franco Garelli, Stefano Martelli, Salvatore Abruzzese and the solutions offered by traditional religions and new movements also dealt with in an edition of Futuribili.
Another important theme is the relationship between communications and a changing society, with specific reference to the role of communications in mass emergency risk management Bruna De Marchi, Luigi Pellizzoni, Daniele Ungaro, Alberto Abruzzese, Laura Bovone, Mario Morcellini. Community studies show a prevalence of territorial belonging and a decline in metropolitan expansion in favor of restricted urban areas forming a city system in which individuals retain their own identity while relating to other people Alberto Gasparini, Reuzo Gubert, Gabriele Pollini.
Finally, a theme reemerging after the explosion and subsequent decline of the studies launched in the early s by the Club of Rome is prediction. Here again, ISIG and Futuribili are at the fulcrum heart of an interest that is particularly strongly felt at a time of uncertainty and transition toward a society that is as yet unclear Eleonora Masini, Giorgio Nebbia, Alberto Gasparini, Luca Bregantini, Moreno Zago. In contrast to these themes, produced by contingent and transient situations, others have been declining in the s.
Less attention has been devoted to large companies, and the factory and the trade union movement have lost some of their importance as an area of study. The same applies to the study of social classes. These fields have felt the effects of a crisis in the culture of the defense of workers' rights and in the paradigm—very often a Marxist one—use to explain social classes and the relations between them.
In short, the profound external and internal changes overtaking Italian society have worked to the advantage of some themes of study and undermined the previous importance of others.
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As was the case with postwar sociology, the driving force in this development has been institutes outside universities especially in international studies or at least consortia and niches inside universities but only loosely tied to their teaching function. Accornero, Aris, and Francesco Carmignani I paradossi della disoccupazione. Bologna: Il Mulino.