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Learning from the Past for the Future

As it has been expressed, understanding this phenomenon is perhaps one of the most relevant consequences of assessing the history of land-use development especially since industrial revolution , given that it becomes simpler not only to comprehend the current state of the art as it applies to us, but also to envision possible solutions for present and future problems [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ]; Loures [ 22 ]. It is a given that land-use change provides constant new opportunities for those who have the desire and the ability to seize landscape, regardless of their nature [ 21 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ].

Nonetheless, it needs to be thought in terms of the town-nature reconnection, considering previously developed ecological and sustainability theories and principles. Indeed, future land-use planning needs to be redeveloped in an integrated multifunctional way, emphasizing the fact that envisioned planning alternatives should not only offer different multipurpose uses, in order to be more attractive and viable, but also incorporate sustainability considering socio-cultural, economic and environmental and aesthetic dimensions at various levels, from national and regional planning to individual construction sites.

Schematic overview of some conferences and publications regarding sustainable development issues.

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Source: Loures [10]. In this regard, the application of sustainability principles to land-use change and land-use planning, the concept of sustainable development suggests that growth must occur, but that it must be quality growth. Still, encouraging growth while reducing resource consumption, is according to North [ 35 ] in fundamental opposition. This idea, though acceptable, is arguably not totally correct, for example, under the scope of landscape redevelopment, is arguably not totally correct, once, while fostering growth, greyscape redevelopment considered here as an alternative to greenfield development reduces land consumption.

Still, questions such as: How to achieve sustainability? How to measure it?

And how does sustainable development improve current design and planning practices and vice-versa? This happens not only because sustainability may be interpreted in two ways: the first refers to landscape conservation, regarding the continuation of practices that maintain and organize it; the second, to the idea of perceiving sustainability as a main principle for future land use, considering the potential landscapes have to enhance sustainability [ 40 ], but also because the notion of a sustainable landscape development may involve a contradiction based on the fact that landscapes evolve somehow in a more or less chaotic way as a reflection of social and economic needs [ 40 ].

In this way, as mentioned by Potschin and Young [ 41 ], p. Considering this, at the planning level, the idea expressed by the Portuguese architect Nuno Portas [ 42 ] may represent in some way a vision of what planners and designers might understand by sustainable land-use planning. According to Portas, in order to be sustainable, once we are living in a period of great uncertainties, planning and design decisions should be flexible, leaving space for possible amendments.

He goes further and states: for example, I am not thankful to Le Corbusier, by determining, in the beginning of the twentieth century, how modern cities should be. Today we know enough to say that the cities He envisioned were not good. Sustainability land-use planning means in this way, the capacity to develop resilient landscapes, that is, landscapes with the capacity to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks [ 43 , 44 ] , including also the capacity to recover from management mistakes.

These ideas are in some regard connected with the vision highlighted by the Dutch architects Rem Koolhaas and Adrian Geuze according to which planning and design should be faced as an opportunity to sketch out a future development without entirely fixing it [ 45 ], creating landscapes with the potential to change and evolve in accordance to still unknown usages. In fact, the integration of sustainability in planning and design processes represents a paradigm shift to the extent that it reflects not only changes in the manner in which development is planned, but also in the organization of the socio-cultural and economic mechanisms that control and implement planning, and in the role of the community in those land-use planning processes.


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Though, these efforts operate in contradiction to factors such as an increasing population, and a growing use of resources, many of them non-renewable [ 46 ]. Even if throughout recent years several normative theories regarding sustainable land use, considering both design and planning principles towards sustainable communities, were created, defining not only the ways in which land-use planning should be envisioned but also the ways in which new developments should be created, the answer to this question is far from being achieved.

From an overall viewpoint, sustainable land use represents a subject of real sustainable dimensions, given that it tackles environmental, social and economic issues, which are the main dimensions of sustainability.

Global Landscapes Forum

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